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C o u r t r o o m®

Game of Legal Intrigue

Courtroom - Manual



(For an illustrated overview of Courtroom, please click here)




Historical Background Playing Instructions
One or Two Players
Choosing a Case from the Court Docket
Selecting a Judge
Court is in Session
Selecting a Witness
The First Turn
Taking Testimony
Admissible or Objectionable?
Scoring Points
The Next Turn

Courtroom Options
Number of Players
Fast or Slow Play
Choosing a Judge
Court Docket
Sound and Speech

Notes on Random Events for the Mathematically Minded

Reference and Bibliography

Courtroom, version 1.0, Instruction Manual

Copyright 1989-2007 by Fairbrother & SoeparMann
5054 South 22nd Street, Arlington, Virginia 22206


Produced by Jim Fairbrother

Manuals by Jim Fairbrother and Luisita Fairbrother.

Artwork by T. Malone

Copying Prohibited

This software product is copyrighted and all rights are reserved by FairBrother & SoeparMann, Inc. The distribution and sale of this product are intended for the use of the original purchaser only and for use only on the computer system specified. Copying, duplicating, selling or otherwise distributing this product without the express written permission of FairBrother & SoeparMann are violations of U.S. Copyright law and are hereby expressly forbidden.

You can make copies for yourself, for the purposes of backup. You can't make copies and give them away to your friends, or sell them. Please, share ideas, not disks.

This software product may not be distributed by any party under any type of rental, preview, or "try before you buy" arrangement.

If, for some reason, the software becomes defective, you can receive a replacement by e-mailing FairBrother & SoeparMann and sending five dollars to cover handling and postage.


Congratulations! You are now the owner of one of the most unique products ever to appear on the computer software market. Courtroom is a game of legal drama, where you execute the role of Prosecutor or Defense Attorney, where the fate of the accused criminal is in your hands. You determine, through your knowledge of courtroom procedures, your logical thinking and reasoning abilities, and application of skillful legal strategy, whether the defendant goes to jail or walks away a free man.

If you and your courtroom opponent battle to a draw, the trial will end with a hung jury.

In this legal affairs adventure, you will question witnesses and examine court exhibits, all the while looking for inadmissible evidence. If you recognize and accept relevant testimony, and object to irrelevant and hearsay testimony, and are able to discern valid courtroom evidence from that which is immaterial, you're on your way to winning the case. Even if you know little about the law and legal procedures, you will learn much quickly, from this amusing and intellectually-stimulating game.

Courtroom is not only a game, it is instructive and educational. For the aspiring attorney or law student, it offers a first-hand chance to experience the dramatic atmosphere of the courtroom. But Courtroom is also for anyone who wishes to sharpen their ability to reason logically, to be able to spot invalid and/or muddled thinking and rationalizations. After playing the game, you may find an improvement in your mental acuity, and a honing of your ability to spot invalid reasoning.

Courtroom is fun, full of twists and turns. You select which of your witnesses you want the other side to question, and if you are playing against the computer, the order in which your opponent's witnesses appear. You can change the difficulty level of the game by selecting from conservative, middle-of-the-road or liberal judges.

So, select a case from the court docket, choose the judge, decide whether you want to be the District Attorney or the Defense Attorney, and walk into the world of Courtroom.

H I S T O R I C A L    B A C K G R O U N D

The American system of jurisprudence has a longer history than the nation itself. It is part of the broad system of criminal justice developed over the course of several hundred years in the British Isles, and the advancement of English law.

The capture of a suspect is only the first step in the application of the law. If a suspect pleads innocent of the charges brought against him, he must be granted a trial, by a jury of his peers.

The rights of the defendant must be guaranteed. Everyone has heard a story or two about the misapplication of justice, where an innocent man was arrested, tried, and convicted of murder, for example, served many long years in prison, and then the true criminal was caught or confessed.

To prevent the passions of the jury from overcoming their duty to rely on the facts only, to keep the trial from becoming bogged down in irrelevant matters, and for a variety of other reasons, certain procedures were established regarding what evidence was admissible and what evidence was not admissible during the course of a trial.

For instance, a gun with the suspect's fingerprints on it would be allowed as evidence in an assault and battery trial, where the victim was shot by a revolver. A letter of commendation from a charity, praising the suspect for the fine work he'd done for them on several occasions, would not, since it is probably irrelevant.


Why "probably?"

Because the line between what is relevant and admissible and what is irrelevant and inadmissible can be vague indeed. The Defendant and his attorney would want this letter of commendation admitted as evidence, where the jury would be more likely to consider it as evidence of the suspect's good character. The Prosecutor likely would object, on the grounds that it is irrelevant to the facts and circumstances of the case.

Who is right? This is the eternal battle waged in the courtroom. Even judges can find plenty of room for disagreement. One justice might admit this as character evidence, while another would throw it out as being irrelevant.

The bulk of a trial does not lie however, in debating which physical objects should be admissible. In the main, a trial consists of listening to statements from witnesses and others whose testimony may have a bearing on the case. In the same manner of physical evidence, testimony can be objected to as irrelevant, as hearsay, or for several other reasons. Sally, a defense witness and friend of the suspect (Frankie) says,

"Annie (a waitress at The Big Burger Restaurant) told me she was serving a late lunch to Frankie at two-thirty, the same time that the bank holdup allegedly took place, so Frankie couldn't possibly have been the robber."

Frankie's Defense Attorney would not object to this statement, of course, since it casts his client in a good light. The Prosecutor, on the other hand, probably would object to this statement, not only since it weakens his case (and is a conclusion on the part of the witness), but, because it is obviously hearsay, evidence based not on a witness s personal knowledge, but on matters told him by another.

Or is it obviously hearsay?

What is patently hearsay to one attorney may be valid admissible evidence to another. Only if an objection is raised, and sustained, if the judge himself instructs the jury to disregard the previous statement, will the jury then not be allowed to use that statement in weighing the guilt and innocence of the suspect.

Even if the prosecution or the defense does object to this statement, the presiding judge still makes the final decision as to admissibility or inadmissibility, whether it really is or isn't hearsay, whether or not the jury will be allowed to consider this testimony. The Judge may sustain the objection, and the jury will be allowed to consider it, or he may overrule it, in which case he declares that the statement is not hearsay, that that Particular bit of testimony is admissible evidence, and the jury may consider it in their deliberations.

P L A Y I N G    I N S T R U C T I O N S

A One or Two-Player Game

Courtroom is a one or two-player game. You can play against the computer or with another person. If you play against the computer, you choose whether to defend or prosecute the accused, the one on trial. The computer will play the other side.

Your task is making the twelve-member jury believe your side of the story: if you are the Defense Attorney, you try for an acquittal; if you are the Prosecuting Attorney, you seek a conviction. There is also the possibility of a hung jury.

In a real criminal trial, the vote for conviction must be unanimous. In Courtroom, however, a simple majority will suffice. There are twelve jurors. As soon as you persuade seven of them that your version of events is the true one, then you win the case.

The first program screen to appear will have credits and a stylized picture of a sword-wielding Lady Justice. Click the left mousebutton once, anywhere on the screen, and a requester will appear, asking you to select the number of players. If you are playing against the computer, move the cursor over the left gadget, "One," and press the left mouse button. If you have a live opponent, select the "Two" gadgets.

If you have selected the one-player version of the game, another requester will appear, asking you which side you want to represent. You can choose to be either the Prosecuting Attorney or the Defense Attorney. Select the "DEF" button if you want to be the Defense Attorney, and "PRO" button to be the Prosecutor. The computer will then play the other side.

If you had selected the "Two" button, indicating there will be two players, then this second requester will not appear. If there are two players, then, of course, you will choose between yourselves who represents which side.

After you answer one or both of the requesters, the second screen will appear.

Choosing a Case from the Court Docket & Selecting a Judge

The second screen up enables you to select a case from the court docket, and to choose which judge will preside over the case. There are three judges to select from. To select a judge, move the mouse pointer to the corresponding gadget and press the left mousebutton, as before.

Four cases appear on the screen at first. To view the other twelve cases, or move among them, select the menu option "Docket." Each time you select docket, four new cases will appear in the docket.

If more than one judge or case has been selected, the program will use the final gadget selections you have made with the mouse.

When both a judge and a case have been properly selected, a message area near the bottom of the screen, on the courtroom steps, will say "All rise! Court is in session!" and the program will continue. If either the judge or case has not been selected, or neither, then the same message area will display information requesting you make an appropriate selection.

Court is in Session

The next scene depicts, in a stylized manner, the interior of the courtroom itself. The previous scenes have to do with the setup of the actual game, but this picture, along with the following witness scene, which shows a gallery of the prosecution and defense witnesses for the selected docket case, is where the legal contest actually begins, and is played out.

Near the top of the courtroom scene, presiding at his desk, is the portrait of the judge who was previously selected. On either side of him are gadgets with the words "Objection" and "Admissible." These are the gadgets you pick when reviewing testimony from the other side's witnesses.

Farther down on the right is the Jury Box, a grid area with twelve small face-and-shoulder figures. These represent the jurors, who will give you an indication of how well the case is going, whether you are winning or losing.

In the center of the screen is a blank box, a Testimony Area, to be used for the witness's testimony.

Underneath the Testimony Area is a long thin area for system and program information, a Message Line. This is to help the player with messages about the correct running procedures of the program, and for warnings when proper courtroom methods aren't being followed. It will display a message, for example, if someone plays out of turn.

To the left is the Witness Box, an area blank when you first start the program (because the first witness hasn't yet been called). When you call the first witness, his or her picture will appear in this rectangle.

Directly underneath the Witness Box are two gadgets, labeled "Defense," outlined in blue, and "Prosecution," outlined in red. These gadgets are selected to elicit testimony from the witness.

Along the bottom of the window is located the Objections Area, eight gadgets and labels which one uses to raise and process objections.

Selecting a Witness

Before a trial can proceed, there has to be a witness to give testimony. Likewise, at this point in Courtroom, you also must select a witness. Select the option "Witnesses" from the menu. After you do this, a new screen will appear, with eight witnesses, four of them defense witnesses and the other four prosecution witnesses. The defense witnesses are outlined in blue and the prosecution's witnesses are outlined in red.

In criminal proceedings, the prosecution always presents the first witness, so a witness outlined in red must be chosen.

The Prosecuting Attorney should select the first witness. In a two-player game, the Prosecution will control the order of appearance of its own witnesses. Likewise for the defense.

In the one-player game, regardless of which side you play, you control the order of appearance of all the witnesses, Prosecution and Defense. This is so the game can have more variety and to let you explore more testimony. For example, the game may conclude after five witnesses have been heard. You may wish to retry the same case, and this time hear testimony from the other three witnesses.

There is no advantage to be gained from selection of certain witnesses. They all offer approximately the same proportion of admissible and inadmissible testimony.

So, to begin, select a witness outlined in red. You can read a brief summary of the role that each witness played in the crime, and his relationship to the defendant, by selecting first the appropriate gadget by the witness's name, and then the menu option "Sketch."

The first witness must be a prosecution witness. If you selected a defense witness, nothing will happen. Once a witness has been selected, by clicking on the appropriate numbered gadget by the name of that witness, choose "Quit" from the menu, and you will be returned to the Courtroom scene. If you have properly chosen a witness, he or she will have appeared in the Witness Box. If the Witness Box is still blank, select the "Witnesses" menu option again, and choose from the other slate of witnesses. If you had selected a blue-outlined witness, select a one framed in red.

The First Turn

Since this first witness is a witness for the Prosecution, the Defense will be the first to examine testimony. If you are puzzled by this statement, just remember that whatever side's witness is on the stand, the other side has the opportunity, and a greater motive, to raise or not raise objections.

In Courtroom, as in a real criminal case, the prosecution always presents the first witness. In Courtroom, however, while the prosecution also presents the first witness, the defense takes the first "turn."

That is, the first witness in the witness box will be a prosecution witness. He is there to deliver testimony which, the Prosecutor hopes, will tend to back up his contention that the defendant is guilty. At the same time, the Defense Attorney is on the lookout for irrelevant and otherwise inadmissible testimony from this same witness; while this first witness, the Prosecuting Attorney's witness, is delivering testimony, the Defense Attorney will be looking closely at each statement this first witness utters, hoping to find, object to and have thrown out of consideration as much of this damaging (to his client, the defendant) testimony as he possibly can.

The Prosecutor, naturally, will not normally object to the statements of his own witness.

In Courtroom, then, although the prosecution presents the first witness, the defense takes the first turn - the Defense Attorney stands at the ready, looking over each statement by the Prosecution witness, and conceding that it is admissible or objecting to it. The second witness is a witness for the defense, thus it will be the turn of the Prosecuting Attorney to object to or pass on testimony.

In real life, the complete slate of prosecution witnesses, one after another, is sworn in, appears on the stand, and give their testimony. Then after the Prosecution has presented all of their witnesses, the Defense Attorney rolls out his register of defense witnesses.

In Courtroom, however, witnesses alternate - first a prosecution witness, then a defense witness, prosecution, defense, etc.

When the prosecution's witness is on the witness stand, then the defense takes its turn, and vice-versa.

Imagine that the prosecution has its witness on the stand. The Prosecutor asks the witness questions. The witness answers and the Prosecutor tries to build his case with this friendly, to his side anyway, witness. The Defense Attorney must now be on guard, and try to prevent damaging, to his client, testimony from being heard or entered. He will object when he thinks testimony is irrelevant. He will try to prevent hearsay testimony. He will object for any and all reasons, real or contrived, in order that his client look better in the eyes of the jury.

The Prosecutor, on the other hand, is obviously not going to object to the testimony of his own witness.

Taking Testimony

So, since the first witness is a Prosecution Witness, the Defense takes the "first turn." If you are the Defense, it is your turn first.

Click on the "Defense" gadget below the Witness Box. If you click on the "Prosecution" gadget, or any other gadget, nothing will happen.

Remember that when a prosecution witness appears in the Witness Box, it is the Defense Attorney's "game turn," and he clicks on the "Defense" gadget to elicit testimony from the prosecution's witness. When a defense witness occupies the Witness Box, the Prosecuting Attorney clicks on the "Prosecution" gadget for testimony.

If you represent the Defense, and it is your turn, click on the "Defense" gadget for testimony. Similarly, when the Prosecution's turn comes up, he will click on the "Prosecution" gadget, even though a defense witness is in the witness box. Whoever's turn it is will use their own gadget to gather testimony from the opposing side's witness.

To begin the game, then, click on the "Defense" Gadget, and a statement will appear in the area to the right of the witness. This is the prosecution witness's first statement. This statement has been offered as testimony, and you can now do one of two things: object to the statement or accept it as admissible evidence.

Admissible or Objectionable?

To accept the statement, Click on the "Admissible" gadget to the right of the judge. "Admissible" means it is "admissible evidence" or an "admissible statement." Immediately, one of the jurors will turn a light shade of red. The light red coloration indicates that the prosecution has scored one point.

After each bit of testimony, one or more jurors will alter color, according to which side scored. With the first statement, if the prosecution scores, a juror will change from solid black to light red. When the Prosecution scores again, that same juror will become a deeper shade of red. When the defense scores, one or more jurors will turn a corresponding shade of blue.


To object to the original statement, point and click on the "Objection" gadget to the left of the judge. To complete this process of objecting, you must then select a specific reason for objecting, from the Objections Area, the row of different objections near the bottom of the window.

For example, if you feel that the witness's statement was objectionable because it was hearsay, first, click on the "Objection" gadget, and then click on the "Hearsay" gadget.

If your (defense) objection is sustained (your reasoning was correct), one of the jurors will turn a medium shade of blue and a corroborating message will appear on the Message Line. A successful objection is worth two points. The mid-blue coloration, rather than light blue, means that the defense has scored, in this case, two points.

If your objection was overruled, it can be overruled for one of two reasons. One, because the statement is admissible. Two, the statement really is objectionable, but you selected the wrong reason for its being objectionable: for example, the statement was hearsay, but you objected to it on grounds of irrelevancy.

Scoring Points

Selecting "Admissible" scores one point for the other side: if you represent the defense, and you select "admissible" after the prosecution witness's statement, the prosecution scores one point. If you object, and your objection is sustained, you, the defense, score two points. If you object, and your objection is overruled, the prosecution scores two points.

Notice that if you accept the witness from the other side's statement, he will score one point. If you object to it, you run the risk that he may score two points.

There are four stages of coloration for jurors, from pink to scarlet for the prosecution, and from light to dark blue for the defense.

Once a juror has attained the deepest shade of coloration, he becomes a juror firmly decided for either acquittal or conviction, who will vote for that side when the final vote is taken. He will not revert back to neutrality or change over to the other side. As soon as either the prosecution or defense has convinced seven jurors, that side wins. A juror will turn a deeper color as more testimony is heard.

The Next Turn

When two jurors have made final decisions for acquittal or conviction, that is, they have both changed color to deep red or deep blue, or one of each, the testimony of the first witness is complete, and the next witness should now be called.

Prosecution and Defense alternate, in Courtroom. (In a real court of law, the prosecution first calls all of its witnesses for testimony, and then the defense calls all of its witnesses.)

If the person previously on the stand was a prosecution witness, the next person called will be a defense witness. And vice-versa. If the next witness is a defense witness, then it will be the prosecution's turn to listen to testimony and raise or not raise objections.

You can cut short the testimony of a witness, by going to the witness pool and selecting another one. However, you can not then later recall the original witness.

You win the game by persuading seven jurors over to your side. If you represent the Defense, to win you must have seven deep-blue colored jurors. If you represent the Prosecution, you must have seven scarlet, or bright red, jurors. In the event there are six jurors for the Prosecution, and six for the Defense, the game ends with a hung jury.

C O U R T R O O M   O P T I O N S

Number of Players

You can play Courtroom against the computer or against another live human being. If you want to play against the computer, you must let it know which side you are choosing to represent. If you choose to the Prosecutor, the computer will be the Defense Attorney. If you want to represent the Defense, the computer will act as Prosecutor. You make this selection at the beginning of the game. If you want to change the chosen format, you must restart the game.

If you are playing against the computer, you can also play through the computer's turn. This will enable you to "step through" the other side's turn, attending to each motion.

Let's say you are playing the defense, in a one-player game. You select the prosecution witness, and examine testimony from him. When the witness is finished, it is the prosecutor's (the computer's) turn.

To start the prosecution (computer's) turn, select the defense witness as you would normally select witnesses. When the defense witness has been seated in the Witness Box, point and click on the "Prosecution" gadget. The first statement will then appear in the Testimony Area. Press on the "Prosecution" gadget once more and the "Objection" or "Admissible" gadget will flash, indicating what the Prosecutor (computer) has decided to do with this piece of testimony.

If the "Admissible" button flashed, you will score a point (since you are playing the defense, one of the jurors will turn a deeper shade of blue). If the "Objection" button flashed, click on the "Prosecution" gadget again, and a specific objection will flash from the "Objections" area near the bottom of the screen. Directly, a juror will alter color, according to whether the objection was sustained or overruled.

Fast or Slow Play

If you are playing Courtroom against the computer, you can also set the rate of play for the side which the computer represents. You can't adjust the rate of play for your turn, of course, because you must examine each witness's statement as it is made, and pass on or object to it. However, you can choose to run through the computer's turn quickly, the fast option, in order to keep the game moving quickly and so that you are always the one interrogating witnesses. With the fast option, the computer will simply zip through the testimony, making objections or not, and calculates the net effect of the objections and admissible evidence. You will see the result in that two additional jurors will have made ultimate decisions on the defendant and altered color respectively. To select the fast option, select "Fast Forward" from the menu.

Whether you choose the slow option, so you can look at the other side's statements and whether he raises objections or not, or the fast option, you have no control over how the computer handles its side of the case, so the net results will be the same, whichever option you choose.

You can switch between the fast and the slow option at any time during the game, by making the same "Fast Forward" selection from the menu. It is a Boolean switch (it alternates with each selection, either on or off).

Choosing a Judge

In Courtroom, unlike most other entertainment software, there are no per se "levels of difficulty" to traverse. However, there are three judges to choose among, and the selection of a certain judge will have a definite effect on the unfolding scenario and possibly even the outcome of the trial case. The judge, as in a real courtroom, is the one who decides whether an objection is to be sustained or overruled, and it is in this area that he makes his influence felt. The attorney, whether he works for the defense or the prosecution, can object or not object to a given bit of testimony as he sees fit. The judge is the arbitrator, and makes the final decision.

Most evidence is straightforward. It is clearly either admissible, or objectionable. If objectionable (inadmissible), it falls into neat objectionable categories.

However there is also a large body of evidence that falls into a "gray" area. It could be either admissible or inadmissible, and even experts might disagree. If a certain bit of testimony falls into this "gray" area, and one of the attorneys raises an objection, then the program uses a random variable to determine whether to allow or disallow the objection.

Liberal Larry decides this type of borderline testimony 75% of the time in favor of the Defense.

Evan Stephan makes 50% of these "gray area" decisions in favor of the Prosecution, and 50% in favor of the Defense.

Roger Wright rules for the Prosecution 75% of the time when this situation arises.

To sum up, if the game is becoming too easy for you, you are always winning the case and you want more of a challenge, then pick Liberal Larry as the judge and play the Prosecution, or choose Roger Wright and play the Defense. On the other hand, if you feel like the old-time television DA Burger trying to win a case against Perry Mason, pick Liberal Larry and play the Defense, or choose Roger Wright and play the Prosecution.

Court Docket

There are sixteen cases to choose from on the court docket. Only four are visible on screen at one time. To view and select from the other twelve, point and click on the menu option "Docket." Each time you click on this menu selection, another four cases will scroll up in the "Court Docket" area.

Sound and Speech

Unfortunately, as this manual was being written, there is no audio in Courtroom. Version 2 of Courtroom is projected to contain both digitized sounds and optional computer speech.

Notes on Random Events for the Mathematically Minded

Courtroom has been constructed along a framework that allows for maximum flexibility and randomness in the unfolding events which comprise the playing scenario of a given trial. There are sixteen different cases, two sides to play for each case, and a grand total of 144 witnesses. Even if you play the same court docket case twice, and you may want to, in order to gain a deeper understanding of legal procedures, it is highly improbable that the two cases would be anything more than vaguely similar in their step-by-step progression.

There are several reasons for this. You control most of the game variables. You can, for example, select the same case, but a different judge. This means that the same statement by the same witness, if it is objected to, and if it is "borderline" (it could be construed as admissible or inadmissible), may be sustained by one judge, but overruled by another.

You can also select the same case, but play the other side. Thus, if you played the Defense Attorney the first time, you can play the Prosecuting Attorney the next time.

You can vary the order of selection of witnesses. For instance, in one game, if you selected Witness A as first to appear in the witness box, in another game you can select Witness C first. Because of the way testimony is given, with the use of a random variable, you will receive different testimony from both witnesses.

A random variable is used to select the order of statements from each witness. Each witness has between 12-20 statements he can make on the witness stand. Which statement he makes first is randomly selected.

Although the sequence of variable results from a random variable function may follow a pattern, if the random seed used is non-variable, the rendition of user-definable events in Courtroom makes this possibility quite small.

More simply put, only if you select the same case, the same judge, choose witnesses in the same order, and follow the same path of allowing as admissible, or objecting to, each piece of testimony, in a succeeding game, as you played in a previous game, will the two games have identical scenarios. As soon as any deviation is made in the path of events, the two games trails of random events will thereafter diverge and not again converge.

Since each witness has a "capacity" of about fifteen statements, and he will be through with his testimony after as few as three, or as many as eight, statements (since by then, after a maximum of eight statements at least two more jurors will have resolved), random selection of statements will give the player a chance to view other testimony if he plays the same game a second time. If the witness makes, say, six statements the first time, there are still nine other statements he hasn't made, which you can receive in a later game. But the testimony offered will be different a second time (will be testimony from the other nine statements, not the original six), only if any change, however small, is made in the unfolding scenario by the player.

Random variables are supposed to be just what they claim to be, random, but in truth, quite a few random variables are not completely random. If you have ever run a computer program claiming to be based on a random variable, you may notice that while the results are random, the path used in achieving the results remains the same. That is, if you run the program again, the sequence of results is the same. These results are random, taken by themselves, but since they occur in the same sequence as the previous results, can they really be called random?

Suppose you get statement numbers four, seven, three, eleven and one from your first witness, Witness A. These appear, and are, randomly distributed. If you play the same case again, you will get the same statements: four, seven, three, eleven and one from the first witness. But it you pick a different first witness. Witness D, then you will see different statements, say two, nine, four, six and eleven, from Witness A, when you get around to selecting him.

You will get the same sequence of results, in Courtroom, and in other so-called "random" mathematical events, because the seed used to initiate the random variable is not itself variable. Even if the seed used is, say, the 23rd power of the twelfth root of fourteen, or some other peculiar configuration, the random numbers drawn will be the same, and in the same sequence, if they are picked from this same seed twice.

Only if the seed is itself based on a random variable will not only the results, but also the sequence of results, be variable.

One method, for computer programs, of varying the seed is to base it on a clock. The exact, to the second, time of a clock will rarely be the same, even if, for example, you start the same procedure at approximately the same time daily. You may do something at 7:01 PM one evening, and 6:58 PM the next evening. But since not all microcomputers contain a clock, the producers of Courtroom decided to use the computer-supplied random variable, which is based on a fixed seed.

Therefore, the random variable in Courtroom will produce identical results in an identical scenario. But once the player deviates from an earlier path, chooses a different judge, selects an alternate first witness, plays the opposite side, selects "Admissible" instead of "Objection," or varies anything else, the tableau alters, and the game behaves differently.

Of course, if you want to play the same scenario again, in the identical manner, then make all the same decisions as you made before.


(Ranging From the Easy-to-Understand to the Sublime)

1. The Complete Guide to Everyday Law, Samuel G. Kling. Follett Publishing Company, New York, 1966.

2. The Family Legal Advisor. Edited by Alice K. Helm. LL.B., J.D., Greystone Press, New York, 1974.

3. Handbook of Everyday Law. Martin .I. Ross & Jeffrey Steven Ross. Fawcett Crest, New York, 1981.

4. Business and the Law, Mark Lee Levine, West Publishing Co. St. Paul, Minn., 1976.

5. Cases and Materials on Criminal Law and Procedure, Rollin M. Perkins, Foundation Press, Mineola, New York, 1972


1. Black's Law Dictionary, Henry Campbell Black, M.A., West Publishing Co., St. Paul, Minn., 1951.

2. Law Dictionary, Steven H. Gifis, Barron's Educational Series, Woodbury, New York, 1975.


Courtroom is available only via direct download from this web site.

Original suggested retail price of $49.95. Now pay only $16.95 for this educational and enlightening game! To start raising objections in your own Courtroom, go to the catalog and follow the download instuctions.